This lesson focuses on the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and rate of inflation reported February 17, 2011, by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) for the month of January, 2011. Students read the BLS report, analyze the meaning of the CPI data, determine the change in consumer prices, and explore the impact of the change in the price level on themselves, their families, consumers, and producers.
- Identify the rate and change in the consumer price index and rate of inflation in the United States in January, 2011.
- Identify factors that have influenced recent changes in the price level.
- Describe how inflation impacts different groups in the economy.
- Distinguish between the CPI-U, core rate and other measures of inflation.
Current Key Economic Indicatorsas of April 4, 2015
The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.2% in February on a seasonally adjusted basis. Over the last 12 months, the all-items price index was unchanged. The energy index increased after several months of decline. Core inflation rose 0.2% in February, the same increase as in January.
The unemployment rate stayed at 5.5% in March, 2015, according to the latest release from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on April 3, 2015. The number of jobs added was much lower than in previous months, with only 126,000 new jobs added to the economy, the fewest number since December of 2013. Some job categories added workers, including health care, professional and business services, financial services, and retail. Average hourly wage growth was 7 cents, but average hours worked fell.
Real GDP increased 2.2% in the fourth quarter of 2014, according to the final estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. This estimate is consistent with the revised estimate. In the third quarter, real GDP increased 5.0%. Consumer spending rose 4.4%, compared to 3.2% in the third quarter. Business investment and exports also increased. Offsetting these gains were increases in imports and decreases in federal government spending, particularly defense spending. (
In its March 18, 2015, statement, the FOMC cited the continued growth of the labor market, increased household and business spending, and below-target inflation as indicators of an economy that continues to recover. They expect below-target inflation to rise as oil prices increase in the medium term. The statement reaffirmed the FOMC intention to keep the federal funds rate at its current low level, but also said that a rate hike was highly unlikely at its April meeting. Notably, the FOMC dropped the word "patient" from its language describing its stance on an improving economy and a rate hike. The Fed revised downward its economic projections, including the rate of unemployment that would sustain a stable inflation rate.
Each month, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) releases an estimate of the level of the consumer price index (CPI) and the rate of inflation in the United States for the previous month. The report provides the most recent current and seasonally adjusted consumer price indexes for all urban consumers, urban wager earners, and the chained index, plus a breakdown by major expenditure groups. The BLS also collects price level data for major metropolitan areas and regions.
This lesson focuses on the January 17, 2011, BLS press release of data on the consumer price index for the month of January, 2011.
For the latest updates on U.S. economic indicators, go to:
[Note: You can subscribe to receive monthly BLS email news releases. To subscribe, go to the BLS News Service Subscription Page .]
[Note on the CPI and Inflation "Focus on Economic Data" Lessons: During the second semester of this school year (January-May, 2011), EconEdLink will publish four lessons on "Consumer Price Index and Inflation." During this time period, the Focus on Economic Data will begin with the "basics" in January and progressively focus on more complex data, issues, and comparisons. All monthly lessons will include the current data and significant recent changes.
- January: CPI and inflation (deflation) basics: What is the CPI? What is inflation and deflation? How are they measured? What do they mean?
- February: More details and issues about the measurements and meaning of the measurements of the price level, adding additional concepts.
- March: U.S. regional and global price level and inflation comparisons.
- April: The relationships of CPI and inflation data to other economic data, such as GDP, employment. etc. and the business cycle. End of year price level summary and potential issues.]
BLS release of CPI data, released on February 17, 2011.
BLS Release of CPI Data for April 2010
BLS "Focus on Spending and Prices": These quarterly reports highlight recent trends in inflation and spending in the U.S. economy.
"The Consumer Price Index.": This article is from the BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 17. It talks in great depth about the CPI.
Frequently Asked Questions About the CPI: This site answers FAQ's for those trying to read CPI releases.
CPI Inflation Calculator: This calculator allows users to compare price changes over time due to inflation.
EconomicIndicators.gov: This site provides the latest updates on U.S. economic indicators.
BLS Economic Indicators: This site provides the latest updates on U.S. economic indicators.
Whose Buying Habits Does the CPI Reflect?: This page explains that the BLS measurement of the CPI-U includes all urban consumers, representing about 87 percent of the total U.S. population.
Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers: U.S. City Average, by Expenditure Category and Commodity and Service Group: This table explains the current level of the CPI-U.
BLS Feature: Focus on Prices and Spending ; What Does the Producer Price Index Measure? The BLS breaks down the official definition of the Producer Price Index to clear up common misconceptions about prices, production, and price pass-though within the PPI.
Frequently Asked Questions
Key Economic Indicatorsas of February 17, 2011
The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.4 percent in January on a seasonally adjusted basis. Over the last 12 months, the all items index increased 1.6 percent before seasonal adjustment.
The U.S. unemployment rate fell by 0.4 percentage point to 9.0 percent in January, while nonfarm payroll employment changed little (+36,000). Employment rose in manufacturing and retail and declined in construction and transportation.
U.S. real gross domestic product increased at an annual rate of 3.2 percent in the fourth quarter of 2010, according to the "advance" estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the third quarter, real GDP increased 2.6 percent. The most recent estimate of the level of U.S. real GDP is: $13.383 trillion in Q4 2010.
The Federal Open Market Committee will maintain the target range for the federal funds rate at 0 to 1/4 percent and continues to anticipate that economic conditions, including low rates of resource utilization, subdued inflation trends, and stable inflation expectations, are likely to warrant exceptionally low levels for the federal funds rate for an extended period.
Global Food Prices on the Rise
The popular revolt in Egypt that ended the 30 year-long regime of President Hosni Mubarak was partially fuelled by rising food prices and potential food shortages. Egypt, where 20 percent of the population lives on less than $1 a day, is the world’s biggest importer of wheat and the government provides subsidized bread for 14.2 million people. Although bread is provided to so many, Egyptian food prices have continuously increased in recent years, as inflation erodes the purchasing power of the Egyptian pound.
[NOTE: As of February 17, 2011, one U.S. dollar was worth 5.877 Egyptian pounds.]
The problem of increasing food prices is not just an Egyptian or North African problem. The United Nations reports that world food prices have surpassed their their highs of three years ago. This has contributed to the wave of political unrest throughout the North African region, in response to inflation.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is an international organization with 191 member nations dedicated to making sure all people have “regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives.” The FAO's mandate is to “raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy.”
The FAO's Food Price Index is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a market basket of food commodities. In January, 2011, the FAO Food Price Index rose for the seventh consecutive month, up 3.4 percent from December 2010, and is now at it’s the highest (in both real and nominal terms) since 1990. Prices of all the commodity groups, except meat, increased in January, 2011.
Some fear that continued world population growth, global economic recovery, and rising national debts will create even more global inflation, especially in food and other commodities.
What about inflation in the United States? Does the global trend include us? Take a look at the most recent U.S. consumer price level and inflation data, and decide for yourself.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Consumer Price Index - January 2011
Released February 17, 2011
"The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.4 percent in January on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all items index increased 1.6 percent before seasonal adjustment."
The Impact of Food and Energy Prices
"Increases in indexes for energy commodities and for food accounted for over two thirds of the all items increase. The indexes for gasoline and fuel oil both increased in January, continuing their recent strong upward trend. The index for food at home posted its largest increase in over two years with all six major grocery store food group indexes rising."
"Over the last 12 months, the food index has risen 1.8 percent with the food at home index up 2.1 percent; both 12-month changes are the highest since 2009."
"The energy index has increased 7.3 percent over the last 12 months, with the gasoline index up 13.4 percent."
The Core Index
"The index for all items less food and energy ( the "core" index) also rose in January. The indexes for apparel, shelter, airline fares, and recreation all posted increases. In contrast, the indexes for new vehicles and for used cars and trucks declined in January.
[Note to teachers: For more information about the "core" rate of inflation, see the BLS Frequently Asked Questions" page . Students can discuss the pros and cons of the reported CPI-U and the "core" rate as reliable measures of inflation.]
[Note to teachers: Have your students noticed changes in food prices - either in grocery stores or restaurants? It may be interesting to look at the history of prices in this category. See Table 2 .]
[Note to teachers: In November, 2007, the BLS published an interesting report on Thanksgiving Food Prices - at home and away from home . The report also mentions other Thanksgiving Day activities, such as time spent watching football games.]
Take a look at the prices level changes in January for the major spending categories. Figure 1, below, shows the "Percent Change in the CPI, All Urban Consumers, U.S. City Average, January, 2011." Note the spending categories that increased and decreased in January.
Figure 1: Changes in CPI All Urban Consumers
Jan. - Jan.
|Food at home||0.7||2.1|
|Food away from home||0.2||1.5|
|All items less food and energy||0.2||1.0|
|Used cars and trucks||-0.3||2.4|
|Medical care services||-0.1||3.0|
To read the full BLS report on the CPI for January, 2011, go to: www.bls.gov/news.release/cpi.nr0.htm
Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
The all urban consumer group represents about 87 percent of the total U.S. population. It is based on the expenditures of almost all residents of urban or metropolitan areas, including professionals, the self-employed, the poor, the unemployed, and retired people, as well as urban wage earners and clerical workers. The CPI for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) is the index most often reported by the national media.
The level of the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 1.6 percent over the last 12 months to an index level of 220.223 (1982-84=100), not seasonally adjusted. For the month, the index increased 0.5 percent prior to seasonal adjustment.
The market basket of goods and services that cost an urban consumer $216.87 in January of 2010, cost $220.23 in January, 2011. Is a rise of $3.36 in a month significant to you? Remember, this index data is based on a base period of 1982-84. That same market basket cost just $100 in 1982-84. Take a look at the history of the level of the CPI-U at this BLS webpage: http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost
Figure 2, below, shows the history of monthly changes in the CPI-U from 2002 through January 2011.
Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W)
The Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) is based on the expenditures of households included in the CPI-U definition that also meet two requirements: more than one-half of the household's income must come from clerical or wage occupations, and at least one of the household's earners must have been employed for at least 37 weeks during the previous 12 months. The CPI-W population represents about 32 percent of the total U.S. population and is a subset, or part, of the CPI-U population. The CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) is the index most often used for wage escalation agreements.
The CPI inflation calculator allows customers to calculate the value of current dollars in an earlier period, or to calculate the current value of dollar amounts from years ago.
Consumer price indexes often are used to escalate or adjust payments for rents, wages, alimony, child support and other obligations that may be affected by changes in the cost of living. The BLS has published a fact sheet explaining how to use the CPI for escalating contracts.
Chained Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U)
The C-CPI-U supplements the other two CPI indexes. The C-CPI-U is designed to more closely resemble a true "cost-of-living index" by taking into account observed consumer behavior, technological changes, and product substitutions. The C-CPI-U is chained monthly, using expenditure data to average price changes across item categories between a base period (1999, initially) and the current period. Data are national, not seasonally adjusted, and subject to revision.
The CPI may not be applicable to all population groups. For example, the CPI-U is designed to measure inflation for the U.S. urban population and thus may not accurately reflect the experience of people living in rural areas. Also, the CPI does not produce official estimates for the rate of inflation experienced by subgroups of the population, such as the elderly or the poor.
The CPI, Inflation and the Cost of Living
A BLS online publication, "Frequently Asked Questions: Is the CPI a Cost-of-Living Index? ," explains the relationship of the CPI to inflation and the cost of living.
"The CPI is the most widely used measure of inflation and is sometimes viewed as an indicator of the effectiveness of government economic policy. It provides information about price changes in the Nation's economy to government, business, labor, and private citizens and is used by them as a guide to making economic decisions. In addition, the President, Congress, and the Federal Reserve Board use trends in the CPI to aid in formulating fiscal and monetary policies."
"The CPI frequently is called a cost-of-living index, but it differs in important ways from a complete cost-of-living measure. BLS has for some time used a cost-of-living framework in making practical decisions about questions that arise in constructing the CPI. A cost-of-living index is a conceptual measurement goal, however, and not a straightforward alternative to the CPI. A cost-of-living index would measure changes over time in the amount that consumers need to spend to reach a certain utility level or standard of living.
Both the CPI and a cost-of-living index would reflect changes in the prices of goods and services, such as food and clothing, that are directly purchased in the marketplace; but a complete cost-of-living index would go beyond this role to also take into account changes in other governmental or environmental factors that affect consumers' well-being. It is very difficult to determine the proper treatment of public goods, such as safety and education, and other broad concerns, such as health, water quality, and crime, that would constitute a complete cost-of-living framework."
Should we worry about inflation?
On February 16, the minutes of the most recent Federal Reserve Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting were released. The minutes provide the details the discussion at the meeting that led to the FOMC’s monetary policy. In this case, the FOMC responded to concerns about the prospects for both inflation and deflation.
The FOMC forecast more robust economic growth, 3.4 to 3.9 percent in 2011, and little risk of inflation. The FOMC recognized stronger inflation in emerging markets, but did not signal any alarm for inflation in the United States. Fed chairman Ben Bernanke reaffirmed the Federal Reserve's willingness to raise interest rates if inflation risk increases.
At the same time, the FOMC dismissed concerns about deflation, given their estimates of stronger growth.
[Note to teachers: The "Virtual Economics" CD includes a basic explanation of "inflation" through a video clip. If you have a copy of "Virtual Economics," open the "Browse Economics Concepts" section and click on the key word "inflation" in the macroeconomics section.]
The "Core" Rate of Inflation and the "Headline" Rate
"The 'core' CPI measurement represents changes in the consumer price index minus items which typically fluctuate widely from month to month - food and energy. From the February 17 BLS announcement: " The index for all items less food and energy rose 0.2 percent in January after increasing 0.1 percent in each of the previous two months." Increases in the costs of shelter, apparel, airline fares, medical care, recreation and household furnishings contributed to the overall increase. The indexes for new and used vehicles decreased in January.
Extra attention is given by forecasters to the core index as it tends to show more lasting trends in prices. The rates of change in the core index were higher in the early part of the year and that did cause concern about the trend in inflation. The concern was that the increase in energy prices over the last several years may have started to influence rates of increases in all other prices. While that concern still exists, core prices are increasing at relatively slower rates.
The "headline" rate - the rate reported in the media includes energy and food. Adding the more volatile energy and food prices often shows greater rates of change. In some cases, a drop in energy prices added to inflation in other categories will end up showing a net "no change."
[Note to teachers: Ask your students which of the two, the headline rate or the core rate, is the more meaningful measure of inflation.]
Calculating the Rate of Inflation Over a Period of Time
The CPI Inflation Calculator allows customers to calculate the value of current dollars in an earlier period, or to calculate the current value of dollar amounts from years ago. The CPI inflation calculator uses the average Consumer Price Index for a given calendar year. This data represents changes in prices of all goods and services purchased for consumption by urban households. This index value has been calculated every year since 1913. For the current year, the latest monthly index value is used.
The BLS has published an online reading, "The Consumer Price Index —Why the Published Averages Don't Always Match An Individual's Inflation Experience ." This may answer some of your questions about your experiences with price level changes.
Looking Back in CPI History
In 1973 and 1974, the United States was experiencing inflation averaging about one percent per month. U.S. consumers lost over 10 percent of their purchasing power in just one year. On October 8, 1974, President Gerald R. Ford, in a speech to Congress, announced the “Whip Inflation Now” program.
President Ford proposed a variety of grass-roots strategies to reduce the impact of inflation. He encouraged people to increase their savings and reduce spending, along public measures, such as higher taxes and reduced government spending. He encouraged people to join the effort by wearing "WIN" buttons. Though the rate of inflation slowed somewhat for a couple of years, it reached even higher levels in 1979 and 1980.
[Note to Teachers: Your students may not remember a time in their lives when prices were significantly increasing (except maybe gasoline). Ask them how they think they would react to higher prices for the things they buy? They may want to think about how they would respond.]
Short Answer Question
1. How does inflation impact your life?
[Answers will vary. Students should be able to connect their spending patterns to price level changes. One common comment should be about gasoline prices over the past year. Students may also commonly comment on changes in the prices of apparel and entertainment. They should use the terminology of the CPI (as found in this lesson) accurately.]
To review, the BLS reported that the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased 0.4 percent in January, and that CPI-U increased 1.6 percent over the last year. There are fewer concerns about serious inflation in the near term.
Do we need a little inflation?
Some economists and policy makers suggest that some inflation, fueled by either strong consumer demand (demand pull) or increased demand for productive resources (cost push), is a positive sign of growth of the economy. Deflation, on the other hand, may dampen the economy and result in a downward spiral.
The good news is that prices are stable and consumers are not struggling to pay higher prices.
The bad news is that prices are stable (if not decreasing) and and the economy is not strong enough to create the number of jobs needed to reduce the persistently high unemployment rate.
The BLS provides more detailed information about how price level changes are measured for different demographic groups, sectors, and specific product groups.
One resource that may be of interest to students is the BLS online publication, "How BLS Measures Price Change for College Tuition and Fees in the Consumer Price Index."
Take a look at the reading. Link: www.bls.gov/cpi/cpifacct.htm
How might the prospect of inflation impact your post-high school plans - working or more education?