Glossary Terms:

Transportation: They Say We Had a Revolution (Part 3)

Glossary terms from:


One of many choices or courses of action that might be taken in a given situation.


Monetary or non-monetary gain received because of an action taken or a decision made.


Any activity or organization that produces or exchanges goods or services for a profit.


Resources and goods made and used to produce other goods and services. Examples include buildings, machinery, tools and equipment. In the context of credit transactions, capital is one of the Three Cs of Credit. It is an indicator of how creditworthy a prospective borrower is likely to be as determined by the borrower's current financial assets and net worth.


Attempts by two or more individuals or organizations to acquire the same goods, services, or productive and financial resources. Consumers compete with other consumers for goods and services. Producers compete with other producers for sales to consumers.


An amount that must be paid or spent to buy or obtain something. The effort, loss or sacrifice necessary to achieve or obtain something.


The allocation or dividing up of the goods and services a society produces.

Economic Development

The process of improving the quality of human lives through raising living standards. Economic development is broader than economic growth, which is concerned with year-to-year increases in production. Economic development deals with the economic, social and political institutions that govern the way the economy and society function.

Economic Growth

An increase in real output as measured by real GDP or per capita real GDP.

Economic Incentives

Factors that motivate and influence the behavior of individuals and organizations, including firms and government agencies. Prices, profits and losses are important economic incentives in a market economy.


The study of how people, firms and societies choose to allocate scarce resources with alternative uses.


Trading a good or service for another good or service, or for money.


Something a person or organization plans to achieve in the future; an aim or desired result.


Tangible objects that satisfy economic wants.


Any reward or benefit, such as money, advantage or good feeling, that motivates people to do something.


A new idea or method.


Money paid regularly, at a particular rate, for the use of borrowed money.


Someone who creates or devises a new process, application, machine, or article of application.


The purchase of capital goods (including machinery, technology or new buildings) that are used to produce goods and services. In personal finance, the amount of money invested in stocks, bonds, mutual funds and other investment instruments.


"Gifts of nature" that can be used to produce goods and services; for example, oceans, air, mineral deposits, virgin forests and actual fields of land. When investments are made to improve fields of land or other natural resources, those resources become, in part, capital resources. Also known as natural resources.


Places, institutions or technological arrangements where or by means of which goods or services are exchanged. Also, the set of all sale and purchase transactions that affect the price of some good or service.


Anything that is generally accepted as final payment for goods and services; serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value and a standard of value. Characteristics of money are portability, stability in value, uniformity, durability and acceptance.


A good or service that can be used to satisfy a want.


A process of manufacturing, growing, designing, or otherwise using productive resources to create goods or services used to to satisfy a want.


Income received for entrepreneurial skills and risk taking, calculated by subtracting all of a firm's explicit and implicit costs from its total revenues.


The basic kinds of resources used to produce goods and services: land or natural resources, human resources (including labor and entrepreneurship), and capital.


Earnings from an investment, usually expressed as an annual percentage.


The money a business receives from customers who buy its goods and services. Not to be confused with profit.


An exchange of goods or services for money.


Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.


A situation in which people produce a narrower range of goods and services than they consume. Specialization increases productivity; it also requires trade and increases interdependence.


Compulsory payments to governments by households and businesses.


The exchange of goods and services for money or other goods and services.


Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.