The Price We Pay for Health: US and Canada
Glossary terms from:
Monetary or non-monetary gain received because of an action taken or a decision made.
A spending-and-savings plan, based on estimated income and expenses for an individual or an organization, covering a specific time period.
Decision made or course of action taken when faced with a set of alternatives.
Attempts by two or more individuals or organizations to acquire the same goods, services, or productive and financial resources. Consumers compete with other consumers for goods and services. Producers compete with other producers for sales to consumers.
An amount that must be paid or spent to buy or obtain something. The effort, loss or sacrifice necessary to achieve or obtain something.
The quantity of a good or service that buyers are willing and able to buy at all possible prices during a period of time.
The freedoms of the marketplace--the freedom of consumers to decide how they wish to allocate their spending among various goods and services; the freedom of workers to choose to change jobs, join unions and go on strike; the freedom of individuals to establish businesses and to decide what to produce and when to change their pattern of production; and the freedom of savers to decide when and where to invest their savings.
Protection against economic risks, such as unemployment, accidents on the job, business failures or natural disasters, over which people have little or no control.
Something a person or organization plans to achieve in the future; an aim or desired result.
Any reward or benefit, such as money, advantage or good feeling, that motivates people to do something.
Payments earned by households for selling or renting their productive resources. May include salaries, wages, interest and dividends.
A practice or arrangement whereby a company provides a guarantee of compensation for specified forms of loss, damage, injury or death. People obtain such guarantees by buying insurance policies, for which they pay premiums. The process allows for the spreading out of risk over a pool of insurance policyholders, with the expectation that only a few policholders will actually experience losses for which claims must be made. Types of insurance include automobile, health, renter's, homeowner's, disability and life.
A piece of work usually done on order at an agreed-upon rate. Also a paid position of regular employment.
The quantity and quality of human effort available to produce goods and services.
A federal health-care program that pays for certain medical and hospital costs for people aged 65 and older (and for some people who are under the age of 65 and disabled). Part of Social Security.
Anything that is generally accepted as final payment for goods and services; serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value and a standard of value. Characteristics of money are portability, stability in value, uniformity, durability and acceptance.
The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.
The chance of losing money.
Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.
A federal system of old-age, survivors', disability and hospital care (Medicare) insurance which requires employers to withhold (or transfer) wages from employees' paychecks and deposit that money in designated accounts.
A situation in which people produce a narrower range of goods and services than they consume. Specialization increases productivity; it also requires trade and increases interdependence.
Use money now to buy goods and services.
The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a given period of time. Normally, as the price of a good or service rises (or falls), the quantity supplied of the good or service rises (or falls).
Compulsory payments to governments by households and businesses.
The exchange of goods and services for money or other goods and services.
The giving up of one benefit or advantage in order to gain another regarded as more favorable.
Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.