Glossary Terms:

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Decision made or course of action taken when faced with a set of alternatives.


People who use goods and services to satisfy their personal needs and not for resale or in the production of other goods and services.


Spending by households on goods and services. The process of buying and using goods and services.


The quantity of a good or service that buyers are willing and able to buy at all possible prices during a period of time.


Payments earned by households for selling or renting their productive resources. May include salaries, wages, interest and dividends.


A rise in the general or average price level of all the goods and services produced in an economy. Can be caused by pressure from the demand side of the market (demand-pull inflation) or pressure from the supply side of the market (cost-push inflation).


Places, institutions or technological arrangements where or by means of which goods or services are exchanged. Also, the set of all sale and purchase transactions that affect the price of some good or service.


Anything that is generally accepted as final payment for goods and services; serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value and a standard of value. Characteristics of money are portability, stability in value, uniformity, durability and acceptance.

Money Supply

Narrowly defined by economists as currency in the hands of the public plus checking-type deposits; also called M1. Other definitions of the money supply (M2, M3) include various savings deposits, money market deposits and money market mutual fund balances.


The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.


A process of manufacturing, growing, designing, or otherwise using productive resources to create goods or services used to to satisfy a want.


In a credit arrangement, the total amount spent during the billing cycle.


Economic regulation is the prescription of price and output for a specific industry, often a natural monopoly. Social regulation is the prescription of health, safety, performance, environmental, output and job standards across several industries.


The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a given period of time. Normally, as the price of a good or service rises (or falls), the quantity supplied of the good or service rises (or falls).


Taxation is the process in which a charge is imposed upon a taxpayer by a state or a legal equivalent of a state.


Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.