National Standards in Economics
Name: Role of Prices
- Students will understand that: Prices send signals and provide incentives to buyers and sellers. When supply or demand changes, market prices adjust, affecting incentives.
- Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Predict how changes in factors such as consumers' tastes or producers' technology affect prices.
National Standards in Financial Literacy
- Students will understand that: People can choose to invest some of their money in financial assets to achieve long-term financial goals, such as buying a house, funding future education, or securing retirement income. Investors receive a return on their investment in the form of income and/or growth in value of their investment over time. People can more easily achieve their financial goals by investing steadily over many years, reinvesting dividends, and capital gains to compound their returns. Investors have many choices of investments that differ in expected rates of return and risk. Riskier investments tend to earn higher long-run rates of return than lower-risk investments. Investors select investments that are consistent with their risk tolerance, and they diversify across a number of different investment choices to reduce investment risk.
Name: Managing Credit
- Students will understand that: Credit allows people to purchase and enjoy goods and services today, while agreeing to pay for them in the future, usually with interest. There are many choices for borrowing money, and lenders charge higher interest and fees for riskier loans or riskier borrowers. Lenders evaluate creditworthiness of a borrower based on the type of credit, past credit history, and expected ability to repay the loan in the future. Credit reports compile information on a person’s credit history, and lenders use credit scores to assess a potential borrower’s creditworthiness. A low credit score can result in a lender denying credit to someone they perceive as having a low level of creditworthiness. Common types of credit include credit cards, auto loans, home mortgage loans, and student loans. The cost of post-secondary education can be financed through a combination of grants, scholarships, work-study, savings, and federal or private student loans.
Name: Managing Risk
- Students will understand that: People are exposed to personal risks that can result in lost income, assets, health, life, or identity. They can choose to manage those risks by accepting, reducing, or transferring them to others. When people transfer risk by buying insurance, they pay money now in return for the insurer covering some or all financial losses that may occur in the future. Common types of insurance include health insurance, life insurance, and homeowner’s or renter’s insurance. The cost of insurance is related to the size of the potential loss, the likelihood that the loss event will happen, and the risk characteristics of the asset or person being insured. Identity theft is a growing concern for consumers and business. Stolen personal information can result in financial losses and fraudulent credit charges. The risk of identity theft can be minimized by carefully guarding personal financial information.
- Students will understand that: A budget is a plan for allocating a person’s spendable income to necessary and desired goods and services. When there is sufficient money in their budget, people may decide to give money to others, save, or invest to achieve future goals. People can often improve their financial wellbeing by making well-informed spending decisions, which includes critical evaluation of price, quality, product information, and method of payment. Individual spending decisions may be influenced by financial constraints, personal preferences, unique needs, peers, and advertising.