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Grade**9-12**

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By Johanna Botha

Students will learn how to determine the function values [f(x) or y values] of simple functions by calculation and inspection and will learn to calculate the area under straight line graphs. Students will watch a video to learn that a tax imposed on the producer and/or consumer of a good has an effect on both. Students will use an interactive slide show to determine the tax burden on producers and consumers. Students need to have knowledge of supply and demand, equilibrium price and quantity, determinants of demand and supply as well as producer and consumer surplus.

**Key concepts**

Consumer Surplus, Dead Weight Loss, Producer Surplus, Tax Incidence

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Grade**9-12**

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By Grant Black

Students engage in a simulation to explore how productivity influences the distribution of income and how government policy influences the redistribution of income. They calculate measures of central tendency for the entire class, their group’s percentage of total classroom income, and graph the Lorenz curve as a representation of the income distribution using an online graphing tool. Students simulate government policies to explore the impact on income distribution and income inequality. Students measure income inequality by interpreting the shape of the Lorenz curve, calculating the Gini coefficient by estimating the area under the Lorenz curve, and comparing the measures of central tendency. Students learn about the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) welfare program in the United States and apply what they have learned about the income distribution and income inequality to examine TANF’s effect.

**Key concepts**

Distribution of Income, Gini Coefficient, Income Inequality, Lorenz Curve, Productivity, Redistribution of Income

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Grade**9-12**

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By Liem Tran

This lesson uses a video clip to introduce variable and fixed inputs. Students participate in an activity that demonstrates adding additional inputs to a fixed set of inputs that eventually leads to diminishing marginal returns and higher marginal costs of production. A slideshow provides students with economic information and mathematical calculations such as slope. The worksheet portion is a concrete example of the relationship between differing costs using the concept of slopes.

**Key concepts**

Average Total Cost, Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue (MR), Variable Costs (VC)

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Grade**9-12**

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By Signe Kastberg

Students take a quiz that involves earning income and paying a tax. Through this activity, they generate data that they use to create a table, a graph, and to build equations that represent relationships between quantities. Students scale and label axes as they create graphs of relationships between income and tax. Tables and graphs of data are then used by the students to construct equations representing examples of relationships between income, tax, and average tax ratio. Students explore the graphs to draw conclusions about the impact of different tax structures on families with different incomes. Note: Students should have prior knowledge of graphing linear functions for this lesson.

**Key concepts**

Average Tax Ratio, Progressive Tax, Proportional Tax, Regressive Tax

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Grade**9-12**

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By Julie Heath

This lesson uses the latest employment and unemployment data release by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, for the month of February, 2015, reported March 6, 2015. The lesson focuses on different ways of measuring the demand for labor and how the demand for labor affects the average hourly wage rate, one of the measures used by the Federal Reserve to gauge the health of the labor market.

**Key concepts**

Demand, Employment, Employment Rate, Labor, Labor Force, Salaries, Unemployment, Unemployment Rate, Wage

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Grade**9-12**

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By Julie Heath

In this lesson, students explore the advance estimate of real GDP data for the fourth quarter of 2014. These data, released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, are presented first as estimates, then as revisions as more data for the time period is collected. This lesson uses data from the initial estimate of the 4Q 2014 activity. Students will understand the recent trends in real GDP, the role of currency valuation in affecting GDP, and some of the other consequences of a strong dollar in terms of influencing economic variables.

**Key concepts**

Balance of Trade, Exchange Rate, Exports, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Imports, Macroeconomic Policies, Macroeconomics, Net Exports, Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Value of Money

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Grade**9-12**

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By Julie Heath

This lesson uses the latest employment and unemployment data release by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, for the month of January, 2015, reported Feb. 6, 2015. The lesson focuses on alternative ways to measure the health of the labor market.

**Key concepts**

Employment, Employment Rate, Labor Force, Labor Market, Unemployment, Unemployment Rate

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Grade**9-12**

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By Julie Heath

Using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Consumer Price Index (CPI), students explore the latest release for January 2015, analyze the extent to which consumer misperception about the inflation rate can exist, and explore the consequences of this misperception.

**Key concepts**

Consumer Price Index (CPI), Inflation, Macroeconomic Indicators, Price Level