Focus on Economic Data: Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy, December 14, 2010
Glossary terms from:
A financial institution that provides various products and services to its customers, including checking and savings accounts, loans and currency exchange.
The percentage of a bank's deposits that it keeps on hand, i.e., does not lend out.
The industry involved with conducting financial transactions. Also, conducting business with a bank, e.g., maintaining a checking or savings account or obtaining a loan.
Any activity or organization that produces or exchanges goods or services for a profit.
In the context of credit transactions, capacity is one of the Three Cs of Credit. It is an indicator of how creditworthy a prospective borrower is likely to be, as determined by the borrower's current and future earnings relative to current debt. High earnings and low debt, for example, indicate a strong capacity to make payments on the loan in question.
Resources and goods made and used to produce other goods and services. Examples include buildings, machinery, tools and equipment. In the context of credit transactions, capital is one of the Three Cs of Credit. It is an indicator of how creditworthy a prospective borrower is likely to be as determined by the borrower's current financial assets and net worth.
People who use goods and services to satisfy their personal needs and not for resale or in the production of other goods and services.
Spending by households on goods and services. The process of buying and using goods and services.
The opportunity to borrow money or to receive goods or services in return for a promise to pay later.
A conclusion reached after considering alternatives and their results.
A sustained decrease in the average price level of all the goods and services produced in the economy.
An increase in real output as measured by real GDP or per capita real GDP.
The study of how people, firms and societies choose to allocate scarce resources with alternative uses.
The central bank of the United States. Its main function is controlling the money supply through monetary policy. The Federal Reserve System divides the country into 12 districts, each with its own Federal Reserve bank. Each district bank is directed by its nine-person board of directors. The Board of Governors, which is made up of seven members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate to 14-year terms, directs the nation's monetary policy and the overall activities of the Federal Reserve. The Federal Open Market Committee is the official policy-making body; it is made up of the members of the Board of Governors and five of the district bank presidents.
Something a person or organization plans to achieve in the future; an aim or desired result.
Tangible objects that satisfy economic wants.
Accommodation in houses, apartments, etc.
Payments earned by households for selling or renting their productive resources. May include salaries, wages, interest and dividends.
A rise in the general or average price level of all the goods and services produced in an economy. Can be caused by pressure from the demand side of the market (demand-pull inflation) or pressure from the supply side of the market (cost-push inflation).
A practice or arrangement whereby a company provides a guarantee of compensation for specified forms of loss, damage, injury or death. People obtain such guarantees by buying insurance policies, for which they pay premiums. The process allows for the spreading out of risk over a pool of insurance policyholders, with the expectation that only a few policholders will actually experience losses for which claims must be made. Types of insurance include automobile, health, renter's, homeowner's, disability and life.
Money paid regularly, at a particular rate, for the use of borrowed money.
The price paid for using someone else's money, expressed as a percentage of the amount borrowed.
The process of putting money someplace with the intention of making a financial gain. Investment possibilities include stocks, bonds, mutual funds, real estate, and other financial instruments or ventures.
The purchase of capital goods (including machinery, technology or new buildings) that are used to produce goods and services. In personal finance, the amount of money invested in stocks, bonds, mutual funds and other investment instruments.
The quantity and quality of human effort available to produce goods and services.
The people in a nation who are aged 16 or over and are employed or actively looking for work.
To grant someone the use of something, on condition that the object borrowed or its equivalent will be returned (often with interest, in the case of money).
The ease with which savings or investments can be turned into cash.
Places, institutions or technological arrangements where or by means of which goods or services are exchanged. Also, the set of all sale and purchase transactions that affect the price of some good or service.
Changes in the supply of money and the availability of credit initiated by a nation's central bank to promote price stability, full employment and reasonable rates of economic growth.
Anything that is generally accepted as final payment for goods and services; serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value and a standard of value. Characteristics of money are portability, stability in value, uniformity, durability and acceptance.
Narrowly defined by economists as currency in the hands of the public plus checking-type deposits; also called M1. Other definitions of the money supply (M2, M3) include various savings deposits, money market deposits and money market mutual fund balances.
A special type of loan for the purchase of a house or other real estate.
Open Market Operations
The buying and selling of government bonds by the Federal Reserve to control bank reserves and the money supply.
The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.
The weighted average of the prices of all goods and services in an economy; used to calculate inflation.
The absence of inflation or deflation; a broad social goal and criterion for measuring the performance of an economic system.
An original amount of money invested or lent.
A process of manufacturing, growing, designing, or otherwise using productive resources to create goods or services used to to satisfy a want.
The amount of output (goods and services) produced per unit of input (productive resources) used.
In a credit arrangement, the total amount spent during the billing cycle.
The amount of goods and services that a monetary unit of income can buy.
A decline in the rate of national economic activity, usually measured by a decline in real GDP for at least two consecutive quarters (i.e., six months).
The basic kinds of resources used to produce goods and services: land or natural resources, human resources (including labor and entrepreneurship), and capital.
Earnings from an investment, usually expressed as an annual percentage.
Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.
The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a given period of time.
The number of people without jobs who are actively seeking work.
The number of unemployed people, expressed as a percentage of the labor force.
Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.
People employed to do work, producing goods and services.