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Glossary terms from:
Monetary or non-monetary gain received because of an action taken or a decision made.
A written order to a financial institution directing the financial institution to pay a stated amount of money, as instructed, from the customer's account.
An amount that must be paid or spent to buy or obtain something. The effort, loss or sacrifice necessary to achieve or obtain something.
The study of how people, firms and societies choose to allocate scarce resources with alternative uses.
Payments for goods and services.
Economic side-effects or third-party effects, in which some of the benefits or costs associated with the production or consumption of a product affect someone other than the direct producer or consumer of the product. Can be positive or negative.
Economic units that demand productive resources from households and supply goods and services to households and government agencies.
Tangible objects that satisfy economic wants.
Payments earned by households for selling or renting their productive resources. May include salaries, wages, interest and dividends.
Payments made by individuals and corporations to the federal government (and to some state and local governments) based on income received (both earned and unearned).
A piece of work usually done on order at an agreed-upon rate. Also a paid position of regular employment.
"Gifts of nature" that can be used to produce goods and services; for example, oceans, air, mineral deposits, virgin forests and actual fields of land. When investments are made to improve fields of land or other natural resources, those resources become, in part, capital resources. Also known as natural resources.
A negative side effect that results when the production or consumption of a good or service affects the welfare of people who are not the parties directly involved in a market exchange. Sometimes referred to as "third-party cost" or "spillover cost," it is a cost imposed on third parties by the production or consumption of other parties.
A beneficial or positive side effect that results when the production or consumption of a good or service affects the welfare of people who are not the parties directly involved in a market exchange. Sometimes referred to as "third-party benefit" or "spillover benefit," it is a benefit obtained without compensation by third parties from the production or consumption of other parties.
The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.
A process of manufacturing, growing, designing, or otherwise using productive resources to create goods or services used to to satisfy a want.
Goods, often supplied by the government, for which use by one person does not reduce the quantity of the good available for others to use, and for which consumption cannot be limited to those who pay for the good.
The basic kinds of resources used to produce goods and services: land or natural resources, human resources (including labor and entrepreneurship), and capital.
The money a business receives from customers who buy its goods and services. Not to be confused with profit.
Payments for labor resources; unlike wages, not explicitly based on the number of hours worked. See also Wages.
Tax in the form of a percent of the cost of a good or service; paid to local and state governments when goods and services are purchased.
Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.
A federal system of old-age, survivors', disability and hospital care (Medicare) insurance which requires employers to withhold (or transfer) wages from employees' paychecks and deposit that money in designated accounts.
Compulsory payments to governments by households and businesses.
Desires that can be satisfied by consuming or using a good or service. Economists do not differentiate between wants and needs.
Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.