Marketplace: Oil Is a Slippery Business
Glossary terms from:
Barriers to Entry
Factors that restrict entry into an industry and give cost advantages to existing firms. Examples would include the large size of existing firms, control over an essential resource or information, and legal rights such as patents and licenses.
Any activity or organization that produces or exchanges goods or services for a profit.
Attempts by two or more individuals or organizations to acquire the same goods, services, or productive and financial resources. Consumers compete with other consumers for goods and services. Producers compete with other producers for sales to consumers.
People who use goods and services to satisfy their personal needs and not for resale or in the production of other goods and services.
A conclusion reached after considering alternatives and their results.
The quantity of a good or service that buyers are willing and able to buy at all possible prices during a period of time.
A severe, prolonged economic contraction.
The allocation or dividing up of the goods and services a society produces.
The study of how people, firms and societies choose to allocate scarce resources with alternative uses.
Economic units that demand productive resources from households and supply goods and services to households and government agencies.
Tangible objects that satisfy economic wants.
Goods and services bought from sellers in another nation.
Money paid regularly, at a particular rate, for the use of borrowed money.
The degree of competition in a market, ranging from many buyers and sellers to few or even single buyers or sellers.
Places, institutions or technological arrangements where or by means of which goods or services are exchanged. Also, the set of all sale and purchase transactions that affect the price of some good or service.
A market structure in which slightly differentiated products are sold by a large number of relatively small producers, and in which the barriers to new firms entering the market are low.
A market structure in which there is a single supplier of a good or service. Also, a firm that is the single supplier of a good or service for which there are no close substitutes; also known as a monopolist.
A market structure in which a few, relatively large firms account for all or most of the production or sales of a good or service in a particular market, and where barriers to new firms entering the market are very high. Some oligopolies produce homogeneous products; others produce heterogeneous products.
A market structure in which a large number of relatively small firms produce and sell identical products and in which there are no significant barriers to entry into or exit from the industry. Firms in perfect competition are price takers and in the long run will earn only normal profits.
The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.
People and firms that use resources to make goods and services.
A good or service that can be used to satisfy a want.
A process of manufacturing, growing, designing, or otherwise using productive resources to create goods or services used to to satisfy a want.
The amount of a good or service people will buy at a given price in a given period of time.
The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to offer for sale at each possible price during a given period of time. Normally, as the price of a good or service rises (or falls), the quantity supplied of the good or service rises (or falls).
Effort applied to achieve a purpose or result, often for pay; skills and knowledge put to use to get something done; employment at a job or in a position; occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.