Focus on Economic Data: Consumer Price Index and Inflation, August 2012
Glossary terms from:
One of many choices or courses of action that might be taken in a given situation.
Any activity or organization that produces or exchanges goods or services for a profit.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
A price index that measures the cost of a fixed basket of consumer goods and services and compares the cost of this basket in one time period with its cost in some base period. Changes in the CPI are used to measure inflation.
People who use goods and services to satisfy their personal needs and not for resale or in the production of other goods and services.
Spending by households on goods and services. The process of buying and using goods and services.
A sustained decrease in the average price level of all the goods and services produced in the economy.
A severe, prolonged economic contraction.
The central bank of the United States. Its main function is controlling the money supply through monetary policy. The Federal Reserve System divides the country into 12 districts, each with its own Federal Reserve bank. Each district bank is directed by its nine-person board of directors. The Board of Governors, which is made up of seven members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate to 14-year terms, directs the nation's monetary policy and the overall activities of the Federal Reserve. The Federal Open Market Committee is the official policy-making body; it is made up of the members of the Board of Governors and five of the district bank presidents.
Something a person or organization plans to achieve in the future; an aim or desired result.
Tangible objects that satisfy economic wants.
Spending by all levels of government on goods and services; includes categories like military, schools and roads.
Individuals and family units that buy goods and services (as consumers) and sell or rent productive resources (as resource owners).
Payments earned by households for selling or renting their productive resources. May include salaries, wages, interest and dividends.
A rise in the general or average price level of all the goods and services produced in an economy. Can be caused by pressure from the demand side of the market (demand-pull inflation) or pressure from the supply side of the market (cost-push inflation).
Money paid regularly, at a particular rate, for the use of borrowed money.
The quantity and quality of human effort available to produce goods and services.
The amount of money that people pay when they buy a good or service; the amount they receive when they sell a good or service.
The weighted average of the prices of all goods and services in an economy; used to calculate inflation.
People and firms that use resources to make goods and services.
A good or service that can be used to satisfy a want.
A process of manufacturing, growing, designing, or otherwise using productive resources to create goods or services used to to satisfy a want.
Goods, often supplied by the government, for which use by one person does not reduce the quantity of the good available for others to use, and for which consumption cannot be limited to those who pay for the good.
The amount of goods and services that a monetary unit of income can buy.
A decline in the rate of national economic activity, usually measured by a decline in real GDP for at least two consecutive quarters (i.e., six months).
Money set aside for a future use that is held in easily-accessed accounts, such as savings accounts and certificates of deposit (CDs).
Activities performed by people, firms or government agencies to satisfy economic wants.
Use money now to buy goods and services.
Standard of Living
The level of subsistence of a nation, social class or individual with reference to the adequacy of necessities and comforts of daily life.
Compulsory payments to governments by households and businesses.
An abstract measure of the satisfaction consumers derive from consuming goods and services.
Payments for labor services that are directly tied to time worked, or to the number of units of output produced.
People employed to do work, producing goods and services.