These standards were last updated in 2008. To visit the Michigan website where these standards are located, click here.


Grade Level: KINDERGARTEN: MYSELF AND OTHERS

Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • K - E1.0.1 Describe economic wants they have experienced.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • K - E1.0.2 Distinguish between goods and services
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • K - E1.0.3 Recognize situations in which people trade

Grade Level: GRADE ONE: FAMILIES AND SCHOOLS

Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 1 - E1.0.1 Distinguish between producers and consumers of goods and services
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 1 - E1.0.2 Describe ways in which families consume goods and services
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 1 - E1.0.3 Using examples, explain why people cannot have everything they want (scarcity) and describe how people respond (choice).
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 1 - E1.0.4 Describe reasons why people voluntarily trade.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 1 - E1.0.5 Describe ways in which people earn money (e.g. providing goods and services to others, jobs)
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 1 - E1.0.6 Describe how money simplifies trade.

Grade Level: GRADE TWO: THE LOCAL COMMUNITY

Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 2 - E1.0.1 Identify the opportunity cost involved in a consumer decision.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 2 - E1.0.2 Identify businesses in the local community.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 2 - E1.0.3 Describe how businesses in the local community meet economic wants of consumers.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 2 - E1.0.4 Describe the natural, human, and capital resources needed for production of a good or service in a community.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 2 - E1.0.5 Use examples to show that people cannot produce everything they want (specialization) and depend on trade with others to meet their wants (interdependence).

Grade Level: GRADE THREE: MICHIGAN STUDIES

Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 3 - E1.0.1 Explain how scarcity, opportunity costs, and choices affect what is produced and consumed in Michigan.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 3 - E1.0.2 Identify incentives (e.g. sales, tax breaks) that influence economic decisions people make in Michigan.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 3 - E1.0.3 Analyze how Michigan's location and natural resources influenced its economic development (e.g. how waterways and other natural resources have influenced economic activities such as mining. lumbering, automobile manufacturing, and furniture making) (H, G)
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 3 - E1.0.4 Describe how entrepreneurs combine natural, human, and capital resources to produce goods and services in Michigan (H, G)
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 3 - E1.0.5 Explain the role of business development in Michigan's economic future.
Standard E2 National Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in the United States.

  • 3 - E2.0.1 Using a Michigan example, describe how specialization leads to increased interdependence (cherries grown in Michigan are sold in Florida; oranges grown in Florida are sold in Michigan).
Standard E3 International Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in the global economy.

  • 3 - E3.0.1 Identify products produced in other countries and consumed by people in Michigan (imports).

Grade Level: GRADE FOUR: UNITED STATES STUDIES

Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.1 Identify questions economists ask in examining the United States (e.g. What is produced? How is it produced? Who gets what is produced? What role does the government play in the economy? How much is produced?).
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.2 Describe some characteristics of a market economy (e.g., private property rights, voluntary exchange, competition, consumer sovereignty, incentives, specialization).
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.3 Describe how positive and negative incentives influence behavior in a market economy.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.4 Explain how price affects decisions about purchasing goods and services (substitute goods)
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.5 Explain how specialization and division of labor increase productivity (e.g., assembly line). (H)
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.6 Explain how competition among buyers results in higher prices.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.7 Demonstrate the circular flow model by engaging in a market simulation, which includes households and businesses and depicts the interactions among them.
Standard E1 Market Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in a market economy.

  • 4 - E1.0.8 Explain why public goods (e.g., libraries, roads, parks) are not.
Standard E2 National Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in the United States.

  • 4 - E2.0.1 Explain how changes in the United States economy impacts levels of employment and unemployment (e.g., changing demand for natural resources, changes in technology, changes competition).(H)
Standard E3 International Economy

Use fundamental principles and concepts of economics to understand economic activity in the global economy.

  • 4 - E3.0.1 Describe how global competition affects the national economy.

Grade Level: GRADE FIVE: INTEGRATED U.S. HISTORY

Standard U1 USHG ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1620

U1.1 American Indian Life in the Americas

  • Describe the life of peoples living in North America before European exploration
    • 5 - U1.1.3 Describe Eastern Woodland American Indian life with respect to governmental and family structures, trade, and views on property ownership and land use. (E)
Standard U1 USHG ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1621

U1.2 European Exploration

  • Identify the causes and consequences of European exploration and colonization.
    • 5 - U1.2.2 Use case studies of individual explorers and stories of life in Europe to compare the goals, obstacles, motivations, and consequences for European exploration and colonization of the Americas (e.g., economic, political, cultural, and religious). (E)
Standard U1 USHG ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1622

U1.3 African Life Before the 16th Century

  • Describe the lives of peoples living in western Africa prior to the 16th century.
    • 5 - U1.3.2 Describe the life and cultural development of people living in western Africa before the 16th century with respect to economic (the ways people made a living) and family structures, and the growth of states, towns, and trade. (E)
Standard U1 USHG ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1623

U1.4 Three World Interactions

  • Describe the environmental, political, and cultural consequences of the interactions among
    • 5 - U1.4.2 Use primary and secondary sources (e.g., letters, diaries, maps, documents, narratives, pictures, graphic data) to compare Europeans and American Indians who converged in the western hemisphere after 1492 with respect to governmental structure, and views on property ownership and land use. (E)
Standard U1 USHG ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1624

U1.4 Three World Interactions

  • Describe the environmental, political, and cultural consequences of the interactions among
    • 5 - U1.4.3 Explain the impact of European contact on American Indian
      • cultures by comparing the different approaches used by the British and French in their interactions with American Indians. (E)
Standard U1 USHG ERA 1 - BEGINNINGS TO 1625

U1.4 Three World Interactions

  • Describe the environmental, political, and cultural consequences of the interactions among
    • 5 - U1.4.4 Describe the Columbian Exchange and its impact on Europeans, American Indians, and Africans. (E)
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.2 Describe significant developments in the New England colonies, including
      • patterns of settlement and control including the impact of geography (landforms and climate) on settlement
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.2 Describe significant developments in the New England colonies, including
      • relations with American Indians (e.g., Pequot/King Phillip's War)
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.2 Describe significant developments in the New England colonies, including
      • growth of agricultural (small farms) and non-agricultural (shipping, manufacturing) economies. (E)
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.2 Describe significant developments in the New England colonies, including
      • the development of government including establishment of town meetings, development of colonial legislatures and growth of royal government religious tensions in Massachusetts that led to the establishment of other colonies in New England.
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.3 Describe significant developments in the Middle Colonies, including
      • patterns of settlement and control including the impact of geography (landforms and climate) on settlement
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.3 Describe significant developments in the Middle Colonies, including
      • the growth of Middle Colonies economies (e.g. breadbasket) (E)
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.3 Describe significant developments in the Middle Colonies, including
      • the Dutch settlements in New Netherlands, Quaker settlement in Pennsylvania, and subsequent English takeover of the Middle Colonies
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.1 European Struggle for Control of North America

  • Compare the regional settlement patterns and describe significant developments in Southern, New England, and the mid-Atlantic colonies.
    • 5 - U2.1.3 Describe significant developments in the Middle Colonies, including
      • immigration patterns leading to ethnic diversity in the Middle Colonies.
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.2 European Slave Trade and Slavery in Colonial America

  • Analyze the development of the slave system in the Americas and its impact upon the life of Africans.
    • 5 - U2.2.1 Describe Triangular Trade including
      • the trade routes
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.2 European Slave Trade and Slavery in Colonial America

  • Analyze the development of the slave system in the Americas and its impact upon the life of Africans.
    • 5 - U2.2.1 Describe Triangular Trade including
      • the people and goods that were traded the Middle Passage
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.2 European Slave Trade and Slavery in Colonial America

  • Analyze the development of the slave system in the Americas and its impact upon the life of Africans.
    • 5 - U2.2.1 Describe Triangular Trade including
      • its impact on life in Africa. (E)
Standard U2 USHG ERA 2 - COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

U2.3 Life in Colonial America

  • Distinguish among and explain the reasons for regional differences in colonial America.
    • 5 - U2.3.4 Describe the development of the emerging labor force in the colonies (e.g. cash crop farming, slavery, indentured servants). (E)
Standard U3 USHG ERA 3 REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION (1754-1800)

U3.1 Causes of the American Revolution

  • Identify the major political, economic, and ideological reasons for the American Revolution.
    • 5 - U3.1.1 Describe the role of the French and Indian War, how British policy toward the colonies in America changed from 1763 to 1775, and colonial dissatisfaction with the new policy.
Standard U3 USHG ERA 3 REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION (1754-1800)

U3.2 The American Revolution and Its Consequences

  • Explain the multi-faceted nature of the American Revolution and its consequences.
    • 5 - U3.2.1 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each side during the American Revolution with respect to military leadership, geography, types of resources, and incentives. (E)
Standard U3 USHG ERA 3 REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION (1754-1800)

U3.3 Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution

  • Explain some of the challenges faced by the new nation under the Articles of Confederation, and
    • 5 - U3.3.2 Give examples of problems the country faced under the Articles of Confederation (e.g., lack of national army, competing currencies, reliance on state governments for money). (E)

Grade Level: GRADE SIX: WESTERN HEMISPHERE STUDIES

Standard E1 Market Economy

Describe the market economy in terms of relevance of limited resources, how

  • E1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices.
    • Describe how individuals, businesses, and government make economic decisions when confronting scarcity in the market economy.
      • 6 - E1.1.1 Explain how incentives vary in different economic systems (e.g. acquiring money, profit, goods, wanting to avoid loss in position in society, job placement).
Standard E2 The National Economy

Use economic concepts, terminology, and data to identify and describe how a national economy functions and to study the role of government as a provider of goods and services within a national economy.

  • E2.3 Role of Government
    • Describe how national governments make decisions that affect the national economy.
      • 6 - E2.3.1 Describe the impact of governmental policy (sanctions, tariffs, treaties) on that country and on other countries that use its resources.
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic lnterdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade.
      • 6 - E3.1.1Use charts and graphs to compare imports and exports of different countries in the Western Hemisphere and propose generalizations about patterns of economic interdependence.
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic lnterdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade.
      • 6 - E3.1.2 Diagram or map the movement of a consumer product from where it is manufactured to where it is sold to demonstrate the flow of materials, labor, and capital (e.g., global supply chain for computers, athletic shoes, and clothing).
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic lnterdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade.
      • 6 - E3.1.3 Explain how communications innovations have effected economic interactions and where and how people work (e.g., internet- based home offices, international work teams, international companies).
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.3 Economic Systems
    • Describe how societies organize to allocate resources to produce and distribute goods and services.
      • 6 - E3.3.1 Explain and compare how economic systems (traditional, command, market) answer the four basic economic questions: What should be produced? How will it be produced? How will it be distributed? Who will receive the benefits of production? (e.g., compare United States and Cuba, or Venezuela and Jamaica).

Grade Level: GRADE SEVEN: EASTERN HEMISPHERE

Standard E1 Market Economy

Describe the market economy in terms of the relevance of limited resources, how individuals and institutions make and evaluate decisions, the role of incentives, how buyers and sellers interact to create markets, how markets allocate resources, and the economic role of government in a market economy

  • E1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices
    • Describe how individuals, businesses, and governments make economic decisions when confronting scarcity in the market economy when organizing, producing, and using productive resources (land. labor, capital) to supply the market place.
      • 7 - E1.1.1Explain the role of incentives in different economic systems (acquiring money, profit, goods, wanting to avoid loss, position in society, job placement).
Standard E1 Market Economy

Describe the market economy in terms of the relevance of limited resources, how individuals and institutions make and evaluate decisions, the role of incentives, how buyers and sellers interact to create markets, how markets allocate resources, and the economic role of government in a market economy

  • E1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices
    • Describe how individuals, businesses, and governments make economic decisions when confronting scarcity in the market economy when organizing, producing, and using productive resources (land. labor, capital) to supply the market place.
      • 7 - E1.l.2 Describe the circular flow model (that businesses get money from households in exchange for goods and services and return that money to households by paying for the factors of production that households have to sell) and apply it to a public service (e.g., education, health care, military protection).
Standard E2 The National Economy

Use economic concepts, terminology, and data to identify and describe how a national economy functions. They study the role of government as a provider of goods and services within a national economy.

  • E2.3 Role of Government
    • Describe how national governments make decisions that affect the national economy. Governmental decisions on taxation, spending, protections, and regulation affect the national economy.
      • 7 - E2.3.1 Explain how national governments make decisions that impact both that country and other countries that use its resources (e.g., sanctions and tariffs enacted by a national government to prevent imports, most favored trade agreements, the impact China is having on the global economy and the U.S. economy in particular).
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic Interdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade. Economic interdependence (trade) and economic development result in challenges and benefits for individuals, producers, and governments.
      • 7 - E3.1.1 Explain the importance of trade (imports and exports) on national economies in the Eastern Hemisphere (e.g., natural gas in North Africa, petroleum Africa, mineral resources in Asia).
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic Interdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade. Economic interdependence (trade) and economic development result in challenges and benefits for individuals, producers, and governments.
      • 7 - E3.1.2 Diagram or map the movement of a consumer product from where it is manufactured to where it is sold to demonstrate the flow of materials, labor, and capital (e.g., global supply chain for computers, athletic shoes, and clothing).
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic Interdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade. Economic interdependence (trade) and economic development result in challenges and benefits for individuals, producers, and governments.
      • 7 - E3.1.3 Determine the impact of trade on a region of the Eastern Hemisphere by graphing and analyzing the Gross Domestic Product of the region for the past decade and comparing the data with trend data on the total value of imports and exports over the same period.
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.1 Economic Interdependence
    • Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade. Economic interdependence (trade) and economic development result in challenges and benefits for individuals, producers, and governments.
      • 7 - E3.1.4 Explain how communications innovations have effected economic interactions and where and how people work (e.g., internet home offices, international work teams, international companies).
Standard E3 International Economy

Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.

  • E3.3 Economic Systems
    • Describe how societies organize to allocate resources to produce and distribute goods and services. An economic system is the institutional framework that a society uses to allocate its resources to produce and distribute goods and services. Every modern economy is a 'mixed system', having some features characteristic of traditional, command, and market economies. The 'mix' varies from one economy to another.
      • 7 - E3.3.1 Explain and compare how economic systems (traditional, command, and market) answer four basic questions: What should be produced? How will it be produced? How will it be distributed? Who will receive the benefits of production? (e.g., market economies in Africa, Europe; command economy in North Korea; and the transition to market economies in Vietnam and China).

Grade Level: GRADE EIGHT: INTEGRATED U.S. HISTORY

Standard U3 USHG ERA 3 - REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION

U3.3 Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution

  • Explain the challenges (aced by the new nation and analyze the development o( the Constitution as a new plan (or governing.
    • Note: Expectations U3.3.I-U3.3.5 address content that was introduced in Grade 5, but ask for explanation and analysis at a higher level than expected in Grade 5. They are included here to support in- depth discussion of the historical and philosophical origins of constitutional government in the United States. (U3.3.6)
Standard U3 USHG ERA 3 - REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION

U3.3 Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution

  • Explain the challenges (aced by the new nation and analyze the development o( the Constitution as a new plan (or governing.
    • 8 - U3.3.2 Identify economic and political questions facing the nation during the period of the Articles of Confederation and the opening of the Constitutional Convention. (E1.4)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.1 Challenges to an Emerging Nation

  • Analyze the challenges the new government faced and the role of political and social leaders in meeting these challenges.
    • 8 - U4.1.3 Challenge of Political Conflict - Explain how political parties emerged out of the competing ideas, experiences, and fears of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton (and their followers), despite the worries the Founders had concerning the dangers of political division, by analyzing disagreements over
      • relative power of the national government (e.g.,Whiskey Rebellion, Alien and Sedition Acts) and of the executive branch (e.g., during the Jacksonian era) (C3)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.1 Challenges to an Emerging Nation

  • Analyze the challenges the new government faced and the role of political and social leaders in meeting these challenges.
    • 8 - U4.1.3 Challenge of Political Conflict - Explain how political parties emerged out of the competing ideas, experiences, and fears of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton (and their followers), despite the worries the Founders had concerning the dangers of political division, by analyzing disagreements over
      • foreign relations (e.g., French Revolution, relations with Great Britain) (C3)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.1 Challenges to an Emerging Nation

  • Analyze the challenges the new government faced and the role of political and social leaders in meeting these challenges.
    • 8 - U4.1.3 Challenge of Political Conflict - Explain how political parties emerged out of the competing ideas, experiences, and fears of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton (and their followers), despite the worries the Founders had concerning the dangers of political division, by analyzing disagreements over
      • economic policy (e.g., the creation of a national bank, assumption of revolutionary debt) (C3, E2.2)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.1 Challenges to an Emerging Nation

  • Analyze the challenges the new government faced and the role of political and social leaders in meeting these challenges.
    • 8 - U4.1.4 Establishing a National Judiciary and Its Power - Explain the development of the power of the Supreme Court through the doctrine of judicial review as manifested in Marbury v. Madison (1803) and the role of Chief Justice John Marshall and the Supreme Court in interpreting the power of the national government (e.g., McCullouch v. Maryland, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Gibbons v. Ogden). (C3, E1.4, 2.2)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
      • agriculture, including changes in productivity, technology, supply and demand, and price (E1.3, E1.4)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
      • the labor force including labor incentives and changes in labor forces (E 1.2)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
      • transportation including changes in transportation (steamboats and canal barges) and impact on economic markets and prices (E1.2, 1.3)
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
      • immigration and the growth of nativism
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
      • race relations
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.1 Comparing Northeast and the South - Compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast and the South with respect to geography and climate and the development of
      • class relations
Standard U4 USHG ERA 4 - EXPANSION AND REFORM (1792-1861)

U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth

  • Describe and analyze the nature and impact of the territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation using maps, charts, and other evidence.
    • 8 - U4.2.3 Westward Expansion - Explain the expansion, conquest, and settlement of the West through the Louisiana Purchase, the removal of American Indians (Trail of Tears) from their native lands, the growth of a system of commercial agriculture, the Mexican-American War, and the idea of Manifest Destiny. (E2.1)
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.1 The Coming of the Civil War

  • Analyze and evaluate the early attempts to abolish or contain slavery and to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
    • 8 - US.1.6 Describe how major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention such as disagreements over the distribution of political power, rights of individuals (liberty and property), rights of states, election of the executive, and slavery help explain the Civil War. (C2)
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.2 Civil War

  • Evaluate the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
    • 8 - U5.2.1 Explain the reasons (political, economic, and social) why Southern states seceded and explain the differences in the timing of secession in the Upper and Lower South. (C3, E 1.2)
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.2 Civil War

  • Evaluate the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
    • 8 - US.2.2 Make an argument to explain the reasons why the North won the Civil War by considering the
      • critical events and battles in the war
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.2 Civil War

  • Evaluate the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
    • 8 - US.2.2 Make an argument to explain the reasons why the North won the Civil War by considering the
      • the political and military leadership of the North and South
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.2 Civil War

  • Evaluate the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
    • 8 - US.2.2 Make an argument to explain the reasons why the North won the Civil War by considering the
      • the respective advantages and disadvantages, including geographic, demographic, economic and technological (E1.4)
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.3 Reconstruction

  • Using evidence, develop an argument regarding the character and consequences of Reconstruction
    • 8 - U5.3.2 Describe the early responses to the end of the Civil War by describing
      • the policies of the Freedmen's Bureau (E2.2)
Standard U5 USHG ERA 5 - CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

U5.3 Reconstruction

  • Using evidence, develop an argument regarding the character and consequences of Reconstruction
    • 8 - U5.3.2 Describe the early responses to the end of the Civil War by describing
      • restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and Black Codes (C2, CS)
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • population, including immigration, reactions to immigrants, and the territory, including the size of the United States and land use
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • changing demographic structure of rural and urban America (E3.2)
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • systems of transportation (canals and railroads, including the Transcontinental Railroad), and their impact on the economy and society (El.4, 3.2)
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • governmental policies promoting economic development (e.g., tariffs, banking, land grants and mineral rights, the Homestead Act) (E2.2)
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • economic change, including industrialization, increased global competition, and their impact on conditions of farmers and industrial workers (E1.4, 2.1, 3.2)
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • the treatment of African Americans, including the rise of segregation in the South as endorsed by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, and the response of African Americans
Standard U6 USHG ERA 6 - THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL, URBAN, AND GLOBAL UNITED STATES (1870-1930)

U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century

  • Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th Century. This era will be addressed in-depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school United History and Geography content expectations.
    • 8 - U6.1.1 America at Century's End - Compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898 focusing on similarities and differences in
      • the policies toward American Indians, including removal, reservations, the Dawes Act of 1887, and the response of American Indians

Grade Level: GRADES 9-12: HIGH SCHOOL CONTENT EXPECTATIONS

Standard E1 Market Economy

1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices

  • Explain and demonstrate how economic organizations confront scarcity and market forces when organizing, producing, using, and allocating resources to
    • 1.1.1 Scarcity, Choice, Opportunity Costs, and Comparative Advantage - Using examples, explain how scarcity, choice, opportunity costs affect decisions that households, businesses, and governments make in the market place and explain how comparative advantage creates gains from trade.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices

  • Explain and demonstrate how economic organizations confront scarcity and market forces when organizing, producing, using, and allocating resources to
    • 1.1.2 Entrepreneurship - Identify the risks, returns and other characteristics of entrepreneurship that bear on its attractiveness as a career.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.2 Competitive Markets

  • Analyze how the functions and constraints of business structures, the role of price in the market, and relationships of investment to productivity and growth, impact competitive markets.
    • 1.2.1 Business Structures - Compare and contrast the functions and constraints facing economic institutions including small and large businesses, labor unions, banks, and households.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.2 Competitive Markets

  • Analyze how the functions and constraints of business structures, the role of price in the market, and relationships of investment to productivity and growth, impact competitive markets.
    • 1.2.2 Price in the Market - Analyze how prices send signals and provide incentives to buyers and sellers in a competitive market.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.2 Competitive Markets

  • Analyze how the functions and constraints of business structures, the role of price in the market, and relationships of investment to productivity and growth, impact competitive markets.
    • 1.2.3 Investment, Productivity and Growth - Analyze the role investments in physical (e.g. technology) and human capital (e.g. education) play in increasing productivity and how these influence the market.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.3 Prices, Supply, and Demand

  • Compare how supply, demand, price, equilibrium, elasticity, and incentives affect the workings of a market.
    • 1.3.1 Law of Supply - Explain the law of supply and analyze the likely change in supply when there are changes in prices of the productive resources (e.g., labor, land, capital including technology), or the profit opportunities available to producers by selling other goods or services, or the number of sellers in a market.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.3 Prices, Supply, and Demand

  • Compare how supply, demand, price, equilibrium, elasticity, and incentives affect the workings of a market.
    • 1.3.2 Law of Demand - Explain the law of demand and analyze the likely change in demand when there are changes in prices of the goods or services, availability of alternative (substitute or complementary) goods or services, or changes in the number of buyers in a market created by such things as change in income or availability of credit.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.3 Prices, Supply, and Demand

  • Compare how supply, demand, price, equilibrium, elasticity, and incentives affect the workings of a market.
    • 1.3.3 Price, Equilibrium, Elasticity, and Incentives - Analyze how prices change through the interaction of buyers and sellers in a market including the role of supply, demand, equilibrium, elasticity, and explain how incentives (monetary and non-monetary) affect choices of households and economic organizations.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.4 Role of Government in the Market

  • Describe the varied ways government can impact the market through policy decisions, protection of consumers, and as a producer and consumer of goods and services, and explain how economic incentives affect government decisions.
    • 1.4.1 Public Policy and the Market - Analyze the impact of a change in public policy (such as an increase in the minimum wage, a new tax policy, or a change in interest rates) on consumers, producers, workers, savers, and investors.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.4 Role of Government in the Market

  • Describe the varied ways government can impact the market through policy decisions, protection of consumers, and as a producer and consumer of goods and services, and explain how economic incentives affect government decisions.
    • 1.4.2 Government and Consumers - Analyze the role of government in protecting consumers and enforcing contracts, (including property rights), and explain how this role influences the incentives (or disincentives) for people to produce and exchange goods and services.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.4 Role of Government in the Market

  • Describe the varied ways government can impact the market through policy decisions, protection of consumers, and as a producer and consumer of goods and services, and explain how economic incentives affect government decisions.
    • 1.4.3 Government Revenue and Services - Analyze the ways in which local and state governments generate revenue (e.g., income, sales, and property taxes) and use that revenue for public services (e.g., parks and highways).
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.4 Role of Government in the Market

  • Describe the varied ways government can impact the market through policy decisions, protection of consumers, and as a producer and consumer of goods and services, and explain how economic incentives affect government decisions.
    • 1.4.4 Functions of Government - Explain the various functions of government in a market economy including the provision of public goods and services, the creation of currency, the establishment of property rights, the enforcement of contracts, correcting for externalities and market failures, the redistribution of income and wealth, regulation of labor (e.g., minimum wage, child labor, working.
Standard E1 Market Economy

1.4 Role of Government in the Market

  • Describe the varied ways government can impact the market through policy decisions, protection of consumers, and as a producer and consumer of goods and services, and explain how economic incentives affect government decisions.
    • 1.4.5 Economic Incentives and Government - Identify and explain how monetary and non-monetary incentives affect government officials and voters and explain how government policies affect the behavior of various people including consumers, savers, investors, workers, and producers.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.1 Income - Describe how individuals and businesses earn income by selling productive resources.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.2 Circular Flow and the National Economy - Using the concept of circular flow, analyze the roles of and the relationships between households, business firms, financial institutions, and government and non-government agencies in the economy of the United States.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.3 Financial Institutions and Money Supply - Analyze how decisions by the Federal Reserve and actions by financial institutions (e.g., commercial banks, credit unions) regarding deposits and loans, impact the expansion and contraction of the money supply.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.4 Money Supply, Inflation, and Recession - Explain the relationships between money supply, inflation, and recessions.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.5 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Economic Growth - Use GDP data to measure the rate of economic growth in the United States and identify factors that have contributed to this economic growth.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.6 Unemployment - Analyze the character of different types of unemployment including frictional, structural, and cyclical.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.7 Economic Indicators - Using a number of indicators, such as GDP, per capita GDP, unemployment rates, and Consumer Price Index, analyze the characteristics of business cycles, including the characteristics of peaks, recessions, and expansions.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.8 Relationship Between Expenditures and Revenue (Circular Flow) - Using the circular flow model, explain how spending on consumption, investment, government and net exports determines national income; explain how a decrease in total expenditures affects the value of a nation's output of final goods and services.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.1 Understanding National Markets

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.1.9 American Economy in the World - Analyze the changing relationship between the American economy and the global economy
      • including, but not limited to, the increasing complexity of American economic activity (e.g., outsourcing, off-shoring, and supply-chaining) generated by the expansion of the global economy.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.2 Role of Government in the American Economy

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.2.1 Federal Government and Macroeconomic Goals - Identify the three macroeconomic goals of an economic system (stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth).
      • and monetary policy; and describing the role of government as a producer and consumer of public goods and services. Analyze how governmental decisions on taxation, spending, protections, and regulation impact macroeconomic goals.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.2 Role of Government in the American Economy

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.2.2 Macroeconomic Policy Alternatives - Compare and contrast differing policy recommendations for the role of the Federal government in achieving the macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.2 Role of Government in the American Economy

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.2.3 Fiscal Policy and its Consequences - Analyze the consequences - intended and unintended - of using various tax and spending policies to achieve macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.2 Role of Government in the American Economy

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.2.4 Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy - Explain the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System and compare and contrast the consequences - intended and unintended - of different monetary policy actions of the Federal Reserve Board as a means to achieve macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.
Standard E2 The National Economy

2.2 Role of Government in the American Economy

  • Describe inflation, unemployment, output, and growth, and the factors that cause
    • 2.2.5 Government Revenue and Services - Analyze the ways in which governments generate revenue on consumption, income and wealth and use that revenue for public services (e.g., parks and highways) and social welfare (e.g., social security, Medicaid, Medicare).
Standard E3 International Economy

3.1 Economic Systems

  • Explain how different economic systems, including free market, command, and mixed systems, coordinate and facilitate the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
    • 3.1.1 Major Economic Systems - Give examples of and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of major economic systems (command, market and mixed), including their philosophical and historical foundations (e.g., Marx and the Communist Manifesto, Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations).
Standard E3 International Economy

3.1 Economic Systems

  • Explain how different economic systems, including free market, command, and mixed systems, coordinate and facilitate the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
    • 3.1.2 Developing Nations - Assess how factors such as availability of natural resources, investments in human and physical capital, technical assistance, public attitudes and beliefs, property rights and free trade can affect economic growth in developing nations.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.1 Economic Systems

  • Explain how different economic systems, including free market, command, and mixed systems, coordinate and facilitate the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
    • 3.1.3 International Organizations and the World Economy - Evaluate the diverse impact of trade policies of the World Trade Organization, World Bank, or International Monetary Fund on developing economies of Africa, Central America, or Asia, and the developed economies of the United States and Western Europe.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.1 Economic Systems

  • Explain how different economic systems, including free market, command, and mixed systems, coordinate and facilitate the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
    • 3.1.4 GDP and Standard of Living - Using current and historical data on real per capita GDP for the United States, and at least three other countries (e.g., Japan, Somalia, and South Korea) construct a relationship between real GDP and standard of living.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.1 Economic Systems

  • Explain how different economic systems, including free market, command, and mixed systems, coordinate and facilitate the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
    • 3.1.5 Comparing Economic Systems - Using the three basic economic questions (e.g., what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce), compare and contrast a socialist (command) economy (such as North Korea or Cuba) with the Capitalist as a mixed, free market bsystem of the United States.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.1 Economic Systems

  • Explain how different economic systems, including free market, command, and mixed systems, coordinate and facilitate the exchange, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
    • 3.1.6 Impact of Transitional Economies - Analyze the impact of transitional economies, such as in China and India, on the global economy in general and the American economy in particular.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.2 Economic Interdependence - Trade

  • Describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and
    • 3.2.1 Absolute and Comparative Advantage - Use the concepts of absolute and comparative advantage to explain why goods and services are produced in one nation or locale versus another.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.2 Economic Interdependence - Trade

  • Describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and
    • 3.2.2 Domestic Activity and World Trade - Assess the impact of trade policies (i.e. tariffs, quotas, export subsidies, product standards and other barriers), monetary policy, exchange rates, and interest rates on
      • domestic activity and world trade.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.2 Economic Interdependence - Trade

  • Describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and
    • 3.2.3 Exchange Rates and the World Trade - Describe how interest rates in the United States impact the value of the dollar against other currencies (such as the Euro), and explain how exchange rates affect the value of goods and services of the United States in other markets.
Standard E3 International Economy

3.2 Economic Interdependence - Trade

  • Describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and
Standard E3 International Economy

3.2 Economic Interdependence - Trade

  • Describe how trade generates economic development and interdependence and
    • 3.2.5 The Global Economy and the Marketplace - Analyze and describe how the global economy has changed the interaction of buyers and sellers, such as in the automobile industry.
Standard E4 Personal Finance

4.1 Decision Making

  • Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and opportunity costs impact individual and household choices.
    • 4.1.1 Scarcity and Opportunity Costs - Apply concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs to personal financial decision making.
Standard E4 Personal Finance

4.1 Decision Making

  • Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and opportunity costs impact individual and household choices.
    • 4.1.2 Marginal Benefit and Cost - Use examples and case studies to explain and evaluate the impact of marginal benefit and marginal cost of an activity on choices and decisions.
Standard E4 Personal Finance

4.1 Decision Making

  • Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and opportunity costs impact individual and household choices.
    • 4.1.3 Personal Finance Strategy - Develop a personal finance strategy for earning, spending, saving and investing resources.
Standard E4 Personal Finance

4.1 Decision Making

  • Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and opportunity costs impact individual and household choices.
    • 4.1.4 Key Components of Personal Finance - Evaluate key components of personal finance including, money management, saving and investment, spending and credit, income, mortgages, retirement, investing (e.g., 401K, IRAs), and insurance.
Standard E4 Personal Finance

4.1 Decision Making

  • Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and opportunity costs impact individual and household choices.
    • 4.1.5 Personal Decisions - Use a decision-making model (e.g., stating a problem, listing alternatives, establishing criteria, weighing options, making the decision, and evaluating the result) to evaluate the different aspects of personal finance including careers, savings and investing
      • tools, and different forms of income generation.
Standard E4 Personal Finance

4.1 Decision Making

  • Describe and demonstrate how the economic forces of scarcity and opportunity costs impact individual and household choices.
    • 4.1.6 Risk Management Plan - Develop a risk management plan that uses a combination of avoidance, reduction, retention, and transfer (insurance).
      • 1 The Personal Finance expectations should be included in high school Economics and other elementary, middle, and high school courses.