Standards in Economics

Below are the National Standards in Economics that most closely relate to the following interactive tool.


Making Sen$e with Paul Solman: Former Reagan Budget Director Argues Against Bailouts, for Financial Discipline ~

Grades: 9-12


Name: Government Failure

Standard: 17

  • Students will understand that: Costs of government policies sometimes exceed benefits. This may occur because of incentives facing voters, government officials, and government employees, because of actions by special interest groups that can impose costs on the general public, or because social goals other than economic efficiency are being pursued.
  • Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Identify some public policies that may cost more than the benefits they generate, and assess who enjoys the benefits and who bears the costs. Explain why the policies exist.

Name: Institutions

Standard: 10

  • Students will understand that: Institutions evolve and are created to help individuals and groups accomplish their goals. Banks, labor unions, markets, corporations, legal systems, and not-for-profit organizations are examples of important institutions. A different kind of institution, clearly defined and enforced property rights, is essential to a market economy.
  • Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Describe the roles of various economic institutions and explain the importance of property rights in a market economy.

Name: Economic Fluctuations

Standard: 18

  • Students will understand that: Fluctuations in a nation's overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by the interaction of spending and production decisions made by all households, firms, government agencies, and others in the economy. Recessions occur when overall levels of income and employment decline.
  • Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Interpret media reports about current economic conditions and explain how these conditions can influence decisions made by consumers, producers, and government policy makers.

Name: Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Standard: 20

  • Students will understand that: Federal government budgetary policy and the Federal Reserve System's monetary policy influence the overall levels of employment, output, and prices.
  • Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Anticipate the impact of the federal government and the Federal Reserve System macroeconomic policy decisions on themselves and others.

Name: Competition and Market Structure

Standard: 9

  • Students will understand that: Competition among sellers usually lowers costs and prices, and encourages producers to produce what consumers are willing and able to buy. Competition among buyers increases prices and allocates goods and services to those people who are willing and able to pay the most for them.
  • Students will be able to use this knowledge to: Explain how changes in the level of competition in different markets can affect price and output levels.